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characteristics of social stratification

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It involves a hierarchy of social groups. In almost all the ancient civilizations, the differences between the rich and poor, humble andpowerful existed. It is used to analyze the role, responsibilities, constraints, needs of men and women in all areas. Stratification system is very old. Status is based on achievement. It is Social: Stratification is social in the sense it does not represent biologically caused inequalities. The gender of a man is masculine and a woman is feminine. Social stratification is a particular form of social inequality. Movement from one status to another has no barrier. The term gender does not replace the term sex. (1) According to N. Kabeer “Gender is seen as the process by which individuals who are born into biological categories of male or female become the social categories of men and women through the acquisition of locally defined attributes of masculinity and feminity.”, (2) According to A. Masefield—”Gender can be defined as a notion that offers a set of frameworks within which the social and ideological construction and representation of differences between sexes are explained.”, (3) According to ILO, “Gender refers to the social differences and relations between men and women, which are learned, which vary widely among societies and cultures and change over time.”. (vi) Racial differences accompanied by dissimilarity also leads to stratification. In social stratification the movement occurs in three directions. In India a special type of stratification in the form of caste is found. But it seems to have first appeared among American Feminists who wanted to reject biological determinism. It refers to the movement of people from one stratum to another or from one status to another. Three Characteristics of Stratified Systems . Social stratification involves two phenomena (i) differentiation of individuals or groups on the basis of possession of certain characteristics whereby some individuals or groups come to rank higher than others, (ii) the ranking of individuals according to some basis of evaluation. Under the caste system status is hereditary. Regarding the origin of stratification many views have been given. (iv) Slavery had economic basis. The master’s power over the slave was unlimited. In slavery, every slave had his master to whom he was subjected. Social stratification is horizontal division of society into “higher” and “lower” social units.”. Characteristics of Social Stratification: According to M.M..Tumin the main attributes of stratification are follows”. There are two types of vertical mobility. Once such positions are assigned, they can not advance and improve their social status in any way. The term social inequality simply refers to the existence of socially created inequalities. 1.2 Meaning and the Characteristics of Social Stratification 1.3 Summary 1.4 Key–Words 1.5 Review Questions 1.6 Further Readings Objectives After studying this unit students will be able to: • Understand the Concept of Social Stratification. There is no inheritance of parental status. Modern stratification fundamentally differs from stratification of primitive societies. Feminist consider gender as the socio-cultural manifestation of being a man or a woman. (iii) Estate system of medieval Europe provides another system of stratification which gave much emphasis to birth as well as to wealth and possessions. Life-styles include such matters like the residential areas in every community which have gradations of prestige-ranking, mode of housing, means of recreation, the kinds of dress, the kinds of books, TV shows to which one is exposed and so on. Recent years have witnessed a thorough and widespread discussion on gender. During the period of Plato and Kautilya even emphasis was given to political, social and economic inequalities. Sociologists are concerned not merely with the facts of social differences but also with their social evaluation. Gender, perhaps is the oldest and permanent source of social differentiation. Sex refers to the physical differences of body where as gender refers to social, cultural and psychological differences between males and females. Thus, gender involves power structure and economic relationships. It was present even in the small wondering bonds. It indicates change in position without the change in status. It ubiquitous. But the term gender means much more than sex and more inclusive than sex. “A stratified society is one marked by inequality, by differences among people that are evaluated by them as being “lower” and “higher”. It includes chances of survival and of good physical and mental health, opportunities for education, chances of obtaining justice, marital conflict, separation and divorce etc. But social stratification does much more: It results in some members of society benefiting greatly and others suffering. So socially differentiated men are treated as socially unequal from the point of view of enjoyment of social rewards like status, power, income etc. The rankings apply to social categories of people who share a common characteristic without necessarily interacting or identifying with each other. Disclaimer 9. It is a conceptual tool for analysis and is used to highlight different structural relationships of inequality between men and women. Image Courtesy : heritagedaily.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/brandingslaves1-1024×610.jpg. It involves movement fromlower to higher or higher to lower. In one word, when individuals and groups are ranked, according to some commonly accepted basis of valuation in a hierarchy of status levels based upon the inequality of social positions, social stratification occurs. For example, if the son of a peon joins a bank as an officer, it is said to be upward social mobility but if he loses the job due to any other reason or inefficiency, he is downwardly mobile from his previous job. 1. Read this article to learn about “Social stratification: meaning, types, and characteristics”. They are: When changes in status occur from one generation to another, it is called intergenerational mobility. Image Guidelines 5. Terms of Use, Privacy Policy, Cookie Policy, and Copyrights. In all societies people differ from each other on the basis of their age, sex and personal characteristics. For example-Brahmins, Kshyatryas, Vaishyas and Sudra Caste. But within the broad hierarchy of caste and class, gender cuts across caste and class. All societies arrange their members in terms of superiority, inferiority and equality. There is no society on this world which is free from stratification. As a socially constructed differences and relations between males and females it very from time to time and from place to place. Characteristics of Social Stratification: (a) Social stratification is universal: There is no society on this world which is free from stratification. In feminist literature gender is not a value free concept rather a value loaded term and has acquired new dimensions. are found to be more important than biological qualities. Universal: S ocial divisions are found in almost all societies and cultures (developing countries to … Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: 1. When changes in status occur within one generation, it is called intra-generational mobility.

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